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Prelims -Environment

Question:Greenhouse Gas Bulletin is released by -View

(a) UNDP

(b) UNEP

(c) World Meteorological Organization

(d) Global Environmental Facility

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Explanation

• The WMO’s ‘Greenhouse Gas Bulletin’, released on Monday, said the abrupt changes in the atmosphere witnessed in the past 70 years are without precedent. • As per the report, globally averaged concentrations of CO2 reached 403.3 parts per million (ppm) in 2016 up from 400.00 ppm in 2015 because of a combination of human activities and a strong El Niño event. Concentrations of CO2 are now 145% of pre-industrial (before 1750) levels.

Question:Acute Encephalitis Syndrome is caused by -View

(a) Bacteria

(b) Virus

(c) Both a and b

(d) Neither a nor b

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Explanation

Question:Which of the following elements is obtained from Seaweeds? -View

(a) Iodine

(b) Sulphur

(c) Magnesium

(d) Armenium

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Explanation

Question:Most of the desert plants blooms during night time because -View

(a) their blooming is controlled by low temperature

(b) they are sensitive to the phases of moon

(c) the desert insects eat away flowers during daytime.

(d) the desert insects are active during nighttime

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Explanation

Question:‘90-90-90 target’ by 2035 is related to combat -View

(a) Malaria

(b) Tuberclosis

(c) Dengue

(d) Chikungunya

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Explanation

The government has committed to achieve a ‘90-90-90 target’ by 2035 (90% reductions in incidence, mortality and catastrophic health expenditures due to TB). This is premised on improved diagnostics, shorter treatment courses, a better vaccine and comprehensive preventive strategies. In 2016, the WHO said that India had many more deaths and incidence of the disease than had been estimated over the years.

Question:Ecosystem Service Improvement Project is funded by -View

(a) UNICEF

(b) New Development Bank

(c) Asian Development Bank

(d) World Bank

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Explanation

• A Grant Agreement from the Global Environment Facility (GEF) of the World Bank of USD 24.64 million for “Ecosystem Service Improvement Project” was signed on 16th Aug 2017 by the Ministry of Finance on behalf of the Government of India and the World Bank. • The size of Project is USD 24.64 million which entirely will be financed by the World Bank out of its GEF Trust Fund. • The project’s duration is 05 years. • Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC) will implement the Project in the States of Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh through Indian Council of Forestry Research & Education under the National Mission for Green India. • The objective of the Project is to strengthen the institutional capacity of the Departments of Forestry and Community Organisations to enhance forest ecosystem services and improve the livelihoods of forest dependent communities in Central Indian Highlands. http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=170041

Question:Lichens are useful bioindicators for -View

(a) Sulfur-di-oxide pollution

(b) Carbon-di-oxide pollution

(c) Nitrogen-di-oxide pollution

(d) Lead oxide pollution

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Explanation

If air is very badly polluted with sulphur dioxide there may be no lichens present, just green algae may be found. If the air is clean, shrubby, hairy and leafy lichens become abundant.

Question:A female Anopheles mosquito can be recognized by -View

(a) Proboscis and palpi are long and more or less of equal length

(b) Proboscis long and palpi short

(c) Proboscis short and palpi long

(d) Both proboscis and palpi are short.

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Explanation

• Malaria is transmitted among humans by female mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles. Female mosquitoes take blood meals to carry out egg production, and such blood meals are the link between the human and the mosquito hosts in the parasite life cycle.

Question:Sandfly -View

(a) is a vector that causes Kala - Azar

(b) Causes Kala - Azar

(c) is a vector that causes Sleeping Sickness.

(d) Causes Sleeping Sickness.

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Explanation

• Kala azar is the second largest parasitic killer in the world. Along with Chagas disease and sleeping sickness, kala azar is one of the most dangerous neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Only malaria is more deadly. • Kala azar is caused by bites from female phlebotomine sandflies – the vector (or transmitter) of the leishmania parasite. • The sand flies feed on animals and humans for blood, which they need for developing their eggs. • If blood containing leishmania parasites is drawn from an animal or human, the next person to receive a bite will then become infected and develop leishmaniasis. • Months after this initial infection the disease can progress into a more severe form, called visceral leishmaniasis or, kala azar. Symptoms of kala azar • Initially, leishmania parasites cause skin sores or ulcers at the site of sand fly bites. If the disease progresses, it attacks the immune system. • Kala azar presents after two to eight months, with more generalised symptoms including prolonged fever and weakness. • Kala-azar is endemic to the Indian subcontinent in 119 districts in four countries (Bangladesh, Bhutan, India and Nepal). India itself accounts for half the global burden of the disease. If untreated, kala-azar can kill within two years of the onset of the ailment, though the availability of a range of drugs has meant that less than one in 1,000 now succumbs to the disease.

Question:RS Committee on GM Crops was headed by -View

(a) Madhusudan Mistry

(b) Anu Aga

(c) K. T. S. Tulsi

(d) Renuka Chowdhury

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Explanation

 No genetically modified (GM) crop should be introduced in India unless the biosafety and socio-economic desirability is evaluated.  The committee has also recommended that the environment ministry should examine the impact of GM crops on environment thoroughly.  The remarks come after India’s GM crop regulator Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee (GEAC) recently recommended the commercial use of genetically modified mustard.  This was in a submission to the environment ministry.  The department-related parliamentary standing committee on science and technology and environment and forest made its recommendations in its 301st report on ‘GM crop and its impact on environment’.  It said GM mustard being a herbicide-tolerant GM organism (GMO), there is clear evidence on the adverse impacts of such GMOs elsewhere in the world.  The report of the committee, chaired by Congress leader Renuka Chowdhury was presented to the Rajya Sabha chairman.