His first Guru was Alara Kalama. But he was not convinced that man could obtain liberation from sorrow by mental discipline and knowledge. His next teacher was Udraka Ramputra. He then joined forces with five ascetics- Kondana, Vappa, Bhadiya, Mahanama and Assagi, who were practicing the most rigorous selfmortification in the hope of wearing away their karma and obtaining final bliss.
Which one of the following pairs does not form part of the six systems of Indian Philosophy?
(a) First Synthetic rubber made in India during Mauryan period
(b) First Chinese to set foot in India
(c) First Greek to set foot in India
(d) First condom made in India during Harappan Civilization
Skylax, the first Greek to set foot in India, lived before Herodotus, who tells that the Persian Emperor Darius Hystargus (512–486) led a naval expedition to prove the feasibility of a sea passage from the mouth of Indus to Persia. The naval expedition of Skylax probably encouraged trade and commerce between Persia and India.
The most famous Kushana ruler was Kanishka, who ruled around 1900 years ago. He organised a Buddhist council, where scholars met and discussed important matters. Ashvaghosha, a poet who composed a biography of the Buddha, the Buddhacharita, lived in his court.
The earliest evidence for the domesticated variety of rice
It is the oldest evidence of rice in any part of the world. Evidence for barley cultivation is attested at Mahgara.
The bone remains from Koldihwa and Mahgara show that cattle, sheep and goat were domesticated in the region. In Mahgara, evidence of a cattle pen has also been met with.
Which of the following is/are true about the ideas of Jainism?.
Buddhism does not recognize the existence of god and soul (atman). This can be taken as a kind of reovlution in the history of Indian religions. It particularly won trie support of the lower orders as it attacked the varna system. People were taken into the Buddhist order without any consideration of caste. Women also were admitted to the sangha and thus brought on par with men. In comparison with Brahmanism, Buddhism was liberal and democratic.
The use of Pali, the language of the peopel, also contributed to the spread of Buddhism. It facilitated the spread of Buddhist doctrines among the common people. Gautama Buddha also organized the sangha or the religious order, whose doors were kept open to everybody, irrespective of caste and sex. The only condition required of the the monks was that they would faithfully observe the rules and regulations of the sangha. Once they were enrolled as members of the Buddhist Church they had to take the vow of continence, poverty and faith. So there are three main elements in Buddhism: Buddha, sangha and dhamma. The monarchies of Magadha, Koshala and Kaushambi and several republican states and their people adopted this religion.
Which of the following is/are false?.
1. Vardhamana Mahavira was a kshatriya prince of the Lichchhavis, a group that was part of the Vajji sangha.
2. The rules made for the Buddhist sangha were written down in a book called the Vinaya Pitaka.